According to a document of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2006, there are 262 cyclotron type accelerators in 39 countries for the production of radioisotopes. Today, the number of this type of accelerators is estimated to be around 350.  The number of cyclotrons used for radioisotope production has increased by 7% between 2002 and 2006. The number of cyclotrons is still increasing fast today. The United States of America (70), Japan (36) and Germany (23) rank in the top three countries that have the highest number of cyclotrons.

By the commissioning of TAEK Proton Accelerator Facility (TAEK-PAF), an infrastructure for accelerator technology with an integral type of facility that was designed for radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production, quality control and research and development will have been established in Turkey for the first time. Eventually various institutions in our country in the field of medicine and research will benefit from this Facility, which is a unique type of its kind.

Scope of the Project

TAEK-PAF is established in Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center of TAEK in Ankara. The project scope includes the construction of the building housing cyclotron type of accelerator and target systems, radiopharmaceutical production and quality control laboratories; construction of supporting buildings; environmental arrangements and construction of  infrastructure; supply, installation and tests of equipment and systems; personnel training.

First concrete was poured in February 24, 2010 and the construction of the Facility was completed in December 10, 2010. Installation and commissioning tests of cyclotron and target systems, equipment for radiopharmaceutical production and quality control laboratories are planned to be completed by August 2011. The radiopharmaceutical production at TAEK-PHT is expected to start in 2012.  


TAEK- PAF General View


TAEK PAF Front View

TAEK PAF and Heat and Transformer Buildings


CYCLONE-30 Cyclotron Type Accelerator System

 Objective of TAEK-PAF

TAEK-PAF is established to produce iodine-123, flourine-18, indium-111, gallium-67 and thallium-201 used for diagnosis of organs and several diseases such as cancer, neurological diseases, physiology of brain and its pathology, coronary diseases and heart imaging. The production of radiopharmaceuticals, quality control of products and distribution of products as patient dose will be conducted at the Facility. Besides, research and training activities in nuclear field will be undertaken at TAEK-PAF.

Technical Specification of Proton Accelerator Facility
The cyclotron accelerator system (Cyclone-30) has the state-of-art technological features of its kind. The proton beam energy is variable and the maximum energy is 30 MeV. The total beam current on target is also variable and the maximum current achievable is 1200 µA. The cyclotron designed by Ion Beam Application Company (IBA) is the first of a kind of its family of production with respect to the ion source yielding the aforementioned maximum total proton current. The cyclotron system has four beam lines; three of them will be used for radioisotope production and one for research and training.

Radiopharmaceutical Products 

FLOURINE-18

Half-life

110 min

Positron Energy

0,63 MeV (max.)

Decay Mode

b+

Nuclear Reaction

18O (p,n) 18F

Proton Beam Energy

18 MeV

Proton Beam Current

40 μA

Irradiation time

1−2 h

Target System

Liquid target system

Target Material

H218O (>95% enriched)

Irradiated Target Carrier

Pneumatic

Separation

Chemical

Distribution Activity

3 Ci (start of distribution)

Type of radiopharmaceutical

Floro-deoksi-glikoz (FDG)

 

IODINE-123

Half-life

13,2 h

Positron Energy

0,16 MeV

Decay Mode

Electron capture, gamma

Nuclear Reaction

124Xe (p,2n) 123Cs

123Cs(5,9 min)→ 123Xe (2,1 h)→ 123I (13,3 h)

Proton Beam Energy

30 MeV

Proton Beam Current

70 μA

Irradiation time

10 h

Target System

Gas system

Target Material

124 Xe (>99,8% enriched)

Irradiated Target Carrier

Gas loading and discharge system

Separation

Physical

Distribution Activity

4 Ci (start of distribution)

Type of radiopharmaceutical

Sodium iodine (NaI)

 

GALLIUM-67

Half-life

78,3 h

Positron Energy

93 keV, 0,19 MeV

Decay Mode

Electron capture, gamma

Nuclear Reaction

68Zn (p,2n) 67Ga

Proton Beam Energy

28,5 MeV

Proton Beam Current

250 μA

Irradiation time

9,5 h

Target System

Copper target coated by electroplating process

Target Material

68 Zn (>98% enriched)

Irradiated Target Carrier

Rabbit system

Separation

Chemical

Distribution Activity

7 Ci (start of distribution)

Type of radiopharmaceutical

Gallium chloride (GaCl3)

 

INDIUM-111

Half-life

67,3 h

Positron Energy

0,17 MeV and 0,25 MeV

Decay Mode

Electron capture, gamma

Nuclear Reaction

112Cd (p,2n) 111In

Proton Beam Energy

28,5 MeV

Proton Beam Current

250 μA

Irradiation time

9,5 h

Target System

Copper target coated by electroplating process

Target Material

112Cd (>90% enriched)

Irradiated Target Carrier

Rabbit system

Separation

Chemical

Distribution Activity

7 Ci (start of distribution)

Type of radiopharmaceutical

Indium chlorine (InCl3)

 

THALLIUM-201

Half-life

74 h

Positron Energy

0,17MeV

Decay Mode

X, gamma

Nuclear Reaction

203Tl (p,3n) 201Pb

201Pb(30 h)→ 201Tl

Proton Beam Energy

28,5 MeV

Proton Beam Current

250 μA

Irradiation time

9,5 h

Target System

Copper target coated by electroplating process

Target Material

203Tl (>90% enriched)

Irradiated Target Carrier

Rabbit system

Separation

Chemical

Distribution Activity

3 Ci (start of distribution)

Type of radiopharmaceutical

Thallium chlorine (TlCl)

 

Construction

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Construction Phases

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External View of PAF

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First Concrete

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Installation Work

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Internal View of PAF

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Inauguration >>

 

Department Of Radiation And Accelerator Technologies
DIRECTORATE OF PRODUCT AND SERVICES BRANCH
QUALITY MANAGEMENT DIVISION
DIRECTORATE OF R&D PROJECTS BRANCH
  • Department Of Radiation And Accelerator Technologies
  • DIRECTORATE OF PRODUCT AND SERVICES BRANCH
  • QUALITY MANAGEMENT DIVISION
  • DIRECTORATE OF R&D PROJECTS BRANCH